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Poly-drug use

Washington Traffic Safety Commission. Marijuana use, alcohol use, and driving in Washington state: emerging issues with poly-drug use on Washington roadways. April 2018.

Washington Poison Center. 2017 annual toxic trend report: cannabis.

The Law

Traffic data

Washington Traffic Safety Commission. Quarterly crash data: all Washington state. 2016.

Your Health

What are the effects?

University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. Learn about marijuana: concentrates, edibles, & flowers. Science-based answers to frequently asked questions. July 2017.

Potential health effects

Memory

Auer R, Vittinghoff E, et al. Association between lifetime marijuana use and cognitive function in middle age. Journal of the American Medical Association, Internal Medicine. 2016; 176(3):352-361.

Thames AD, Arbid N, Sayegh P. Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users. Addictive Behaviors. 2014; 39(5):994-999.

Schweinsburg AD, Brown SA, Tapert SF. The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Curr Drug Abuse Review. 2008; Jan;1(1):99-111.

NIDA. Marijuana. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. February 2018.

Mood and mental health

Stoner SA. Effects of marijuana on mental health: depression. University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. June 2017.

Stoner SA. Effects of marijuana on mental health: anxiety disorders. University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. June 2017.

NIDA. Is marijuana addictive? National Institute on Drug Abuse website. May 2018.

Dependence and addiction

NIDA. Is marijuana addictive? National Institute on Drug Abuse website. May 2018.

Budney AJ, Roffman R, et al. Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. 2007; 4(1):4-16.

Side effects

NIDA. Marijuana. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. February 2018.

Radhakrishnan R, Wilkinson ST, D’Souza DC. Gone to pot: A review of the association between cannabis and psychosis. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:54.

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS)

Galli JA, Sawaya RA, Friedenberg FK. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 2011; 4(4):241-249.

What if I mix it with other substances?

University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. Learn about marijuana: alcohol and marijuana. June 2013.

University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. Learn about marijuana: marijuana and tobacco. August 2017.

Grondel Darrin T., Hoff Staci, Doane Dick. Washington Traffic Safety Commission. Marijuana use, alcohol Use, an Driving in Washington State: Emerging Issues with Poly-Drug Use on Washington Roadways. April 2018.

What about driving after use?

Ramaekers JG. Driving under the influence of cannabis: an increasing public health concern. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2018;319(14):1433–1434. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.1334

Grondel Darrin T., Hoff Staci, Doane Dick. Marijuana use, alcohol use, and driving in Washington state: emerging issues with poly-drug use on Washington roadways. Washington Traffic Safety Commission. April 2018.

Washington Traffic Safety Commission. Quarterly crash data: all Washington state. 2016.

Others’ Safety

How do I store it?

Washington Poison Center. 2017 annual toxic trend report: cannabis.

What about secondhand smoke?

Wang X, Derakhshandeh R, Liu J, et al. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2016;5:e003858, originally published July 27, 2016.

World Health Organization (WHO). The health and social effects of nonmedical cannabis use. 2016.

Moir David, et. al. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2008, 21, 494-502.

Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. Evidence on the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke. 2009.

What if I’m vaping?

Brooks D. Army warns troops about potentially dangerous vaping oils. The Fayetteville Observer. January 30, 2018.

What if I’m pregnant or breastfeeding?

Grant TM. Marijuana’s impact on pregnant women and their children. University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Marijuana: Is it safe for mothers who use marijuana to breastfeed? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

Fried, Peter & Watkinson, Barbara & Gray, Robert. (1998). Differential Effects on Cognitive Functioning in 9- to 12-Year Olds Prenatally Exposed to Cigarettes and Marihuana. Neurotoxicology and teratology. 20. 293-306. 10.1016/S0892-0362(97)00091-3.

Leech, S.L., et al. Prenatal substance exposure: effects on attention and impulsivity of 6-year-olds. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1999. 21(2): p. 109-18. 4.

Goldschmidt, L., et al., Prenatal marijuana exposure and intelligence test performance at age 6. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008. 47(3): p. 254-63. 5.

Campolongo P, Trezza V, Ratano P, Palmery M, Cuomo V. Developmental consequences of perinatal cannabis exposure: behavioral and neuroendocrine effects in adult rodents. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214:5–15. 6.

Warner, T.D., D. Roussos-Ross, and M. Behnke. It’s not your mother’s marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child. Clinics in Perinatology, 2014. 41(4): p. 877-94. 7.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado: 2014. 2015.

Ryan Sheryl A., Ammerman Seth D., O’Connor Mary E., Committee on Substance Use and Prevention, Section on Breastfeeding. Marijuana use during pregnancy and breastfeeding: Implications for neonatal and childhood outcomes. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2018. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2018-1889.

Cannabis, reproduction, and pregnancy

University of Washington, Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute. Learn about marijuana: Marijuana, reproduction, and pregnancy. September 2015.